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A New Americanism
About this book Freiner defines a new understanding of nationalism, with a focus on the ways in which the Japanese state has utilized Confucian philosophy to create a Japanese national identity and on the impact of this on women. Show all. Nicole N. Freiner is an assistant professor of Political Science at Bryant University. Show next xx. Services for this book Download High-Resolution Cover.
Women, States and Nationalism
PAGE 1. Shirin M. Rai has also pointed out how economic development tied to nation-building projects in postcolonial contexts is often gendered as masculine, ultimately devaluing the economic stability of women and subaltern men. Specific social and political roles expected of women are not only tied to conceptions of femininity , but are also linked to local and national power relations. Social responsibilities, such as child-rearing , or particular forms of employment and interpersonal engagement become feminized and expected of women. Concepts like territory , community , and ethnicity as well as aspirations regarding the future of the nation are tied to gender roles that cast women as maternal caretakers of a nation's future.
In their framework, women act as: biological producers of new national members, symbols of national difference, carriers and creators of cultural narratives, agents enforcing the boundaries of the nation, active participants in national movements. Nationalist movements are often aligned with heteronormative family models, that is, heterosexual family units assuming male leadership, female reproduction, as well as natural and complementary roles between men and women.
Thus, nationalism has been identified as a tool to support heteronormative structures of power that exclude or subjugate sexual minorities and those outside of the male-female gender binary. Race and religion intersect with the development of nationalism and impact how gender roles are structured in relation to nationalism. Racialization , the process of ascribing race to particular social groups or individuals, always corresponds to particular configurations of gender, class, and nationalism. The inclusion or expulsion of particular religious communities may be aligned with particular forms of gendered nationalist discourse.
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Theorist Jasbir Puar suggests that gendered discourses of nationalism often demonize or advocate the expulsion of Muslim people in the United States, thus tying particular understandings of the nation-state and nationalism to specific configurations of gender. Nationalism and gender studies is a subfield within the broader interdisciplinary study of nationalism , also referred to as nationalism studies.
Nationalism and gender studies draw on feminism , queer theory , postcolonialism , and interdisciplinary methods to investigate the interplay between gender and nationalism. Context and location are important for understanding how nationalism develops. Therefore, scholars often use case studies to explore how gender and nationalism are linked in specific contexts. Muscular nationalism is a term developed by the political scientist Sikata Banerjee to describe the development of nationalism amidst tensions produced by gender binaries.
Banerjee describes muscular nationalism as a form of nationalism that relies on a binary notion of gender with opposing conceptions of man versus woman. In such a situation, female activists and political actors contest a dualistic notion of nationalism, thus generating political, cultural, and social tension.
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The form of nationalism resulting from the binary and its contestation is muscular nationalism. Within studies of nationalism, gender, and sexuality, queer nationalism refers the process wherein homosexuality and queer sexuality function as the basis of social and political organization and produce particular nationalisms. Queer nationalism can also refer to the process of using queerness as a metaphor for types of affiliations between nation-states.
Scholars have used the term homonationalism to describe the emergence of nationalism that advances support for homosexuality and LGBT rights while also promoting xenophobic , racist, colonialist, and supremacist ideologies. Developed by theorist Sara Farris, femonationalism describes a particular form of nationalism within western European contexts. Farris defines femonationalism as a form of nationalism that deploys feminist critique and support for gender equality while simultaneously promoting xenophobic, racist, and anti-Islam sentiment and policy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Nationalism Development.
Core values. Autonomy National identity Self-determination Solidarity.
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List of nationalist organizations. Related concepts. Anationalism Anti-nationalism Diaspora politics Gender and nationalism Historiography and nationalism Internationalism Irredentism Revanchism Seasonal or cultural festival. Main article: Femonationalism. Canadian Woman Studies. The Woman and War Reader. Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World.
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