Soviet propaganda continues to shape the beliefs of Russians about the Russian and Soviet past and continues to infect public consciousness in the West. In fact, under Russian President Putin, who began his career in the murky world of the soviet KGB, Russian historians continue to recycle and reinforce Soviet-era myths. The present hunger is temporary. In writing books you must have a longer view. It would be difficult to describe it as a famine. He served his own interests in writing to fit the Soviet line. Privately he admitted the scope of the famine  but his articles loaded with Kremlin propaganda did incalculable damage, obscuring the truth about Ukraine.
At the same time he vilified and slandered those such as Gareth Jones who reported the facts on the ground . A great deal of ignorance about the Holodomor persists to this day in the West, largely a consequence of Kremlin sponsored disinformation. As a result the book was subsequently withdrawn from circulation.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union came the opening of the archives. Access to documents made it impossible to deny that millions of people in Ukraine starved to death. Consequently, the Kremlin minimizes the Holodomor to the extent possible, claiming that in the USSR in the early s Ukraine was not special and everyone suffered. Kremlin historian par excellence Prof. Holodomor of The corpses of the starving are buried in mass graves.
Anybody that has taken the time to study the full body of documentation at hand will know that this is simply not true, for there are a number of documents and citations from Stalin and his acolytes that say otherwise:. As reported by a Soviet secret police informant, a colleague of the Ukrainian historian and political leader Mykhailo Hrushevskyi sent a message to him stating that what the Communists were doing in Ukraine. Translation of 6 Regarding the political situation, it is necessary to say that Ukraine is experiencing true famine, entire villages and counties are dying out, and to especially emphasize horrific mortality rates among children.
Some will die, and others will scatter across the vast terrain of Russia. Documents that point to the genocidal intent of the Holodomor like the ones quoted above are ignored by Kondrashin, who writes:. At that, this feature of Soviet industrialization was not been invented by Stalinists. Nearly 13M Tons of grain were exported from Russia in , which caused a severe tragedy in grain producing regions .
An estimated , died during the famine of Arguably it helped radicalize the left opposition to the Tsar since the Tsar was completely ineffective in bringing any sort of relief to the afflicted areas. The Holodomor is a completely different story, where famine was used by the state to suppress a people. Kondrashin cites statistics about the excessive export of grain during the two famines. The factual omissions are telling in and of themselves. With regards to the famine areas of , the explanation is natural.
The Autumn of was exceptionally dry which had delayed seed planting. What followed was an exceptionally cold but dry winter which left the seeds of what crops there were exposed to deadly frost. The dry conditions continued into the Spring of ensuring a very limited growth of crops. This, however, this did not happen. Hearst wants to deprive them of that encouragement and faith by painting a picture of ruin and death in the USSR. The attempt is too transparent, and the hands are too unclean to succeed. In a post-script, Fischer added that a Lindsay Parrott had visited Ukraine and had written that nowhere in any city or town he visited "did I meet any signs of the effects of the famine of which foreign correspondents take delight in writing.
But I have not noticed that the Hearst press printed Mr. Parrott is Mr. Some of the pictures have been retouched to look like new. In other cases, the old war pictures have been rephotographed. As a result, many of them look like prints. One photograph from the New York Evening journal February 18, , was identified by Casey as actually portraying an Austrian cavalry soldier standing beside a dead horse following a World War I military action.
This younger child crawled about the floor like a frog and its poor little body was so deformed from lack of nourishment that it did not resemble a human being. Its mother had died when it was one year old. This child had never tasted milk or butter and only once had tasted meat.
The bench has a ribbed back as on old-fashioned office benches, hardly corresponding to the sole household furniture of a "typical peasant. It betrays the appearance of being a doctored copy of a non-primary source, rather than a direct print from a negative. This author has encountered this unforgettable picture in an early s publication of a Russian famine of the period following World War I.
Union of Bov!. M Khurki'fC I witti ii,!.. IVturr rnp. Contradictory claims for the origin of this photo were put forward by Nazi propagandists in the s. Portions of the Hearst-Walker series, including some of the photos, had in fact appeared the year previous in the August 6, London Daily Express. However, this earlier version of the hoax locates the tale in Belgorod — which is in Russia proper. Subsequent versions of the hoax over the decades politically relocate the story to Kharkov, which is of course in Ukraine. It would seem that the Hearst-Walker conspirators decided to come up with an expanded and improved series, including some of the materials published anonymously in Britain.
Deported from England and arrested on his return to the United States just a few months after the Hearst series, it turned out that Thomas Walker was in fact escaped convict Robert Green. The New York Times reported: "Robert Green, a writer of syndicated articles about conditions in Ukraine, who was indicted last Friday by a Federal grand jury on a charge of passport fraud, pleaded guilty yesterday before Federal Judge Francis G. The judge learned that Green was a fugitive from Colorado State Prison, where he escaped after having served two years of an eight-year term for forgery.
His trail of crime led through five U. Apparently it is felt that the risks inherent in duping the public are necessary to further famine-genocide concoctions. One Fascist. In the late summer of , Hearst visited Nazi Germany. In Munich he was joined William Randolph Hearst. Left to right: Mr.
Some months after his return to the U. Hearst launched his famine propaganda campaign. The deal was said to have been worth one million marks a year. Hale was later found to be in the pay of the Germans In October , the British and French governments banned the Hearst press from the use of cables and mails.
The Canadian government followed suit the following month, banning Hearst newspapers outright. For example, the October 1, Herald and Examiner , carried an article by the former French premier, Edouard Herriot, who had recently returned from travelling around Ukraine. Herriot noted: ". While wandering around the Ukraine, I saw nothing of the sort.
Ewald Ammende, described the launching of the Hearst campaign: 'On January 5, , William Randolph Hearst broadcast a speech based almost entirely on the account of the [Cardinal] Innitzer Committee. The entire Hearst press next proceeded to deal with the Russian famine. The man who published uncensored articles by the Nazis Goering and Rosenberg, and the fascist dictator Mussolini, 15 had launched his famine-genocide campaign.
By mid-February , Hearst and his mercenary scribblers were ready to go into action. Following the Walker series, Hearst launched his next caper, determined to convince Americans that the Soviet Union was a land of utter starvation, genocide and cannibalism. This time he offered the tales of one Harry Lang, editor of the Daily Forward, a Yiddish language publication of the extreme right-wing faction of the Socialist Party.
Why would a socialist team up with a multi-millionaire capitalist publisher?
- Freshly-baked pastries.
- Fraud, Famine And Fascism The Ukrainian Genocide Myth From Hitler To Harvard!
- tribune marxiste-léniniste.
- St. Patricks Day.
- Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard.
By the early s, following splits between right and left, the Forward had sunk to the status of a right-wing pulp journal. It came to represent the views and interests of a clique tied in with business union operators, who resisted violently — with ink, threat and boot any militancy among the workers they dominated.
The aim of the Communist leadership of the strike, the Forward cried, was to show Stalin "that his American followers had begun to make the revolution. There, it narrated, hundreds of fur workers who refused to support the strike were taken and beaten into submission by the "Communist terrorists.
The workers angrily ripped into shreds copies of the paper. It showed the picture of a mother in distress, with a swollen child at her feet, and over the picture was the inscription: Eating of Dead Children Is Barbarism. The Soviet official explained to me: ". We distributed such posters in hundreds of villages, especially in the Ukraine. We had to. Harry Lang, you are a liar. Didn t you see the kindergarten among the apartments? These are the things I saw in Kharkov in I am willing to meet Harry Lang on a platform at any time — liar and pen prostitute that he is — and let the public judge who is telling the truth.
Lang who claims to be a Socialist has not only violently misrepresented the Socialist attitude to Soviet Russia, but has placed himself beneath contempt of all workers by making himself the tool of William Randolph Hearst, the bitter enemy of the labor movement and the principal mouthpiece for American fascism.
Hearst knows that his readers are not in a position to judge the accuracy of his charges. And he knows too that his ends can best be served by throwing a smokescreen over the amazing progress which the Soviet Union has made in the past two years. By attempting to discredit communism in distant Russia, he is merely resorting to an easy and dishonest method of attacking radicalism of all varieties in America.
Following Lang on the list of hired pens was R. Sanger, who made his debut in the late April issues of To illustrate his stories, a photograph supposedly showing Sanger interviewing a group of Russian workers in Moscow was included. None of the photographs showed conditions supporting claims of famine- genocide. Smith wasted little time in selling horror stories to the Hearst press, although his previous correspondence with American friends had not indicated any such state of affairs.
Perhaps he needed a fresh start in unemployment-ridden America. Carl Blaha not only called Smith a liar, but gave a detailed and much different account of actual working and living conditions which he and Smith had experienced. Upon his final return to the United States in , Beal, the unemployable fugitive in the midst of economic depression, was by preparing to sell out for money and hope of a reduced jail sentence.
Wolynec, who had worked at the Kharkov tractor plant from to Wolynec, who was not a communist party member, had known Beal in Ukraine for two years. Just a short time before he himself returned to the United States, Beal wrote in this booklet: It would not be true to say that all the foreigners have been satisfied with life in the Soviet Union. Most of them came with honest intentions, but there were also a few who expected something for nothing.
They were of course, disappointed and quickly returned. But most of those who go back tell the truth of the situation here. Following his rehabilitation in the Hearst press, Beal was allowed to serve only a token of his original jail sentence. His autobiography — Proletarian Journey — appeared in , a classic in yellow journalism used as a weapon in the famine-genocide campaign to this day.
Deys have no union in mah business. Ah once worked in a shirt factory and de people dere, dey made me join de union, but ah s quit. Why man, Ah wouldn't work in no factory. Ah gets more money from my gennemen friends. I took the train from our little station of Lossevo, and rode for two hours to Chekuyev. From this place, we walked for several miles. We met not a living soul. We came upon a dead horse and a dead man upon the side of the road. The horse still lay harnessed to the wagon.
The man was still holding the reins in his lifeless, stiff hands. Both had died from starvation. Defending his articles in the Hearst press, Beal writes in his autobiography: "the Hearst papers are read largely by the working masses, and have always had a distinct bias in favor of labor. Nonetheless, Beal earns himself a special place in right-wing history books by claiming to have had an audience with Petrovsky, President of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic, who allegedly told him that millions were dying. In fact, the s campaign is having a bigger impact a half-century later.
References to s newspaper accounts lend a certain superficial credibility to current famine-genocide allegations. What was recognized in the 30s as politically-motivated sensationalism has been transformed in the s into primary evidence. Examples of fraud and contradictions exposed at the time are conveniently forgotten. The notorious right-wing character of the Hearst press is rarely remembered. The Nazis had been flogging the issue as early as , complete with fraudulently mis-dated photos. A New York Times correspondent remarked: there has been a fresh outburst of "starvation propaganda" in the German and Austrian press, with appeals for charity for the "unhappy victims of the Soviet famine.
Some were even said to date from the Volga famine of This is a favorite trick of anti-Bolshevik propagandists. Ewald Ammende. James E. Further, Ammende is most reluctant to acknowledge the photographic affinities of Human Life in Russia with earlier publication in England, the United States, Nazi Germany and elsewhere.
Ammende avoids any genuine documentation of the photographs in question: "the majority of them were taken by an Austrian specialist. None of the photos are specifically identified as having been taken by the un-named Austrian. We are informed that "the authenticity of the photographs, which form a permanent record of the terrible events in Ukraine Of these, only two opposite page 32 are identified as Kharkov by captions.
These show what appear to be orderly assemblies outside stores. Although the stores signs are partially legible, the photos are undocumented as to date and specific location. Given the inefficiencies of Soviet food store distribution methods, such a picture might have been taken during any one of a number of years. The sole remaining reference to Kharkov in any of the photos is found in a caption beneath a picture of some corpses lying in a boxcar opposite page However even this was not taken in Kharkov; the caption states: "These families boarded a train and went to Kharkov to demand food, which they did not, however, receive.
When the train was opened they were found to have died from hunger on the return journey. Signs, landmarks, etc. In some cases opposite page , the photos are composed or cropped in such a way that the identification of key human subjects is rendered impossible. Nor is it certain that these photographs were exposed by the same photographer and equipment. Ditloff himself in the summer of , and they demonstrate the conditions prevailing on the plains of the agricultural areas of the Hunger Zone. Ditloff was posted to the North Caucasus, not Ukraine. However, Ammende is deliberately obscure as to just where Ditloff did his remarkable shutter-bugging.
In any event, regardless of their real date and place of origin, Dr. This, in fact, turns out to be the London Daily Express as noted in Chapter 1. This picture has also been featured in other documentary movies of early 20th century Russia. Even the Ukrainian Nationalist propaganda film Harvest of Despair presents this picture in relation to the Russian famine.
It is one of three obviously updated s photos used with the article "Hungerhoelle Sowjetrussland. Ammende has captioned his version of the photo "famine victims in hospital.
There are still more contradictions. Ammende states that all of Human Life in Russia's photographs were taken in the summer of Ditloff took these photos in the summer of Thomas Walker claimed he took these photos in the spring of Note photo bottom left of woman and boy bundled up for severe winter weather.
They had to lie there until spring awaiting burial. His caption reads: "This is not a pile of wood, but corpses of starved Ukrainians at a burial spot. Other examples of interpolative and arbitrary captioning can be cited concerning this one picture alone. Yet another photo shows a girl with a coat, hat and scarf — holding a naked child on her lap. This is surprising since Human Life in Russia is frequently cited for its text, and is recognized by right-wing historians as a classic book for their purposes.
This despite the fact that Walker claimed to have taken the photos in the spring of , while the photos are currently used to portray events in or The Great Famine in Ukraine: The Unknown Holocaust , leaves undocumented photos designated by Ammende to have been taken by the unnamed Austrian; and credits Thomas Walker for photos which Ammende has credited to Ditloff.
Thus it is rather astonishing that Harvard University's Dr. Mace played a significant role in all of the above books. He has thereby affixed his seal of approval to contradictory and mutually exclusive accounts concerning the origin of the photos. Apparently prepared to endorse anything anti- communist, certain academics seem intent on compromising their reputation and that of their university.
As though anticipating doubts and challenges Ammende feebly passes the buck, stating that Ditloff would assume fu responsibility and guarantee the photos' authenticity. Nor does he state which photos had been used without permission. Since previous unauthorized publication of an author's "most important source of evidence particularly if accompanied by accounts contrary to ones own is an affront to any honest historical writer, Ammende s silence on this matter engenders the utmost skepticism.
Topping it off is the fact that Ammende was well aware of Hearst's famine series from its very beginning. He not only cites Hearst accounts to develop his own argumentation, but also states: "On January 5, , William Randolph Hearst broadcast a speech based almost entirely on the account of the Cardinal Innitzer Committee The entire Hearst press next proceeded to deal with the Russian Famine. Thus, Ammende was no innocent dupe who received bogus photos in ignorance. In fact, Ammende was the General Secretary of the Innitzer Committee from whose accounts Hearst drew information for hisjanuary broadcast.
He was assigned to work in liaison with the Hetman Skoropadsky regime, installed in Ukraine by the Germans in Mace had to admit that "it might be said that Ammende called for aid to the hungry only after the famine had come to an end. Indeed, a wide assortment of photos and documentary film footage was taken in Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe and Armenia during the period of World War I, the Russian revolution, Civil War and foreign intervention, events which contributed to the Russian famine of These photos — taken by journalists, relief agencies, medical workers, soldiers and individuals — were frequently published in the newspapers and brochures of the period.
Top left: Dr. Bottom: La Famine en Russie, Geneva, Photographs from Human Life in Russia. Bottom left: a posed photograph similar to Russian famine relief agency photos eg. Information No. The photo of emaciated children neatly posed on a bench opposite p. As an experienced Russian famine relief worker, Ammende was undoubtedly familiar with the Nansen material; indeed Ammende describes a meeting with Nansen in Human Life in Russta 38 There is little doubt that Ammende was complicit in his friend Ditloff s famine photo-faking adventure. It may be, however, that a more central role in the fraud was played by Ditloff himself — and the Nazis.
When Hitler took power in early , Ditloff like famine experts Herwarth and Henke did not resign in protest. Following his return to Nazi Germany later that year, Ditloff gathered or fronted for a spurious assortment of famine photographs. These, as has been shown, included photos stolen from famine sources.
In addition, at least 25 of the Ditloff photos can be shown to have been released by the Nazis, many of which were passed to or picked up by various anti-Soviet and pro-fascist publishers abroad. Some of Ditloff s photos were published in the Nazi party organ Voelkischer Beobachter August 18, Others turned up in the London Daily Express August 6, Here one should note that Ammende and Ditloff were in England in May , campaigning for British pressure against the Soviet Union on the famine question.
Ammende and Ditloff visited the British Foreign Office, seeking to make the British vote on Soviet admission to the League of Nations conditional upon some [Soviet] assurances on the matters. In , both the Nazi press and William Randolph Hearst systematically promoted the famine-genocide campaign, complete with gruesome photographs. The struggle against the Bolshevik terror has been successfully carried out in Germany. Ditloff contributed more than photographs to this Nazi propaganda book. Human Life in Russia. Whatever the actual mechanics of the distribution of the Ditloff- Walker photographs, their fraudulence is well established.
Those intent on propagating the famine-genocide myth for political purposes have not hesitated to use these photographs repeatedly to this day — without adding a shred of authenticating evidence to this questionable material. The political motives and persuasions of the groups and individuals involved are indeed relevant here. German Nazis, defeated right-wing Ukrainian Nationalist exiles, European conservatives, neo-fascist media millionaires like Hearst — all wanted to isolate and bring pressure on the Soviet Union, to discredit and reverse socialist developments.
Mainstream historians did not accept the fabrications of the extreme right. The McCarthy period witnessed not only a resurgence of the lunatic right, but its alliance with the post-war wave of Ukrainian Nationalists who had fled Ukraine with the retreating Germans.
Fraud, Famine, and Fascism: The Ukrainian Genocide Myth From Hitler to Harvard
An anti-communist marriage of convenience took place between the American ultra-right and Ukrainian Nationalists, sections of whom had collaborated with the Nazis. These now required new clothes and a cover story for past activities, while the Cold War promoters could point to such people as "living witnesses of the communist menace facing humanity. Despite the admission in its preface to being "motley" and "uneven," Black Deeds is used as resource and reference material for the current generation of famine-genocide campaigners.
Of some relevance here may be the observations noted in the U. Congressional Commission on Communist Aggression in However, missing from his contributions to the U. Let [the massacre] strongly unite our people with the mighty strength of Germany, the liberator of Ukraine, let it unite [ us ] in the cruel and merciless struggle with the terrible enemy of mankind — Bolshevism. This included a slaughter carried out by Ukrainian auxiliaries in Vynnitsya Park, where Bingel witnessed "layer upon layer" of corpses buried.
Following funeral rites for the victims, writes Trembovetskyj in Zlockyn U Vinnytsya , Bishop Yevlohiy stated: The Lord God had mercy on us and sent to us for our salvation the praiseworthy hands of the German people and their chief Adolf Hitler. We must all come to the aid of the German people and with honest work and devoted hearts hasten the victory over Bolshevism. They have not succeeded — unless a cartoon of Stalin with the stereotypical facial physiognomy reminiscent of an earlier generation of anti-semitic artists can be considered evidence.
The peasants, incidentally, all appear well-dressed in practical work clothes. Volume I also presents a handful of alleged famine photos plagiarized from earlier historical periods. All are undocumented. For example, the photo showing three men wearing First World War issue caps p. Among those listed as generous donors toward the publication of Black Deeds is Fedir Fedorenko. Can this be the same Fedorenko deported from the United States and later convicted as a confessed Treblinka death camp guard? Of this person, the Ukrainian writer M. Skrybnyak states: "According to documents and witness testimony, Anton Shpak and his like exterminated close to two thousand civilian residents in Bila Tserkva during the Nazi occupation.
Most of the victims were Jews. Yevchuk, remembers: When they were leading the Jews to where they were going to shoot them, a pretty young girl ran up to Shpak. Diener, his wife, and an old woman, Dworja Golostupetz. In 1 these photos reappear in the anti-semitic propaganda book Und Du Siehstdie Sowjets Richtig reprinted in The day I visited Kherson town March 3 rd, Hj' The town has about In the town of Yekaterinoslav It must also be remembered that hunger indirectly Gangrene from hunger.
Even diseases that under ordinary circumstances have only an insignificant percentage of mortality have now a very great one. Vaccinations loose much of their preserving capacity. In connection with the use of meat from dead horses there are cases of glanders. In conse- quence of starvation especially among the adults a great many cases may also he observed of the swelling illness, that causes ' Grangrene of the mouth.
Page 15 of Information No. II, , p. Kersten of Wisconsin. Kersten penned the violently anti-communist Introduction to the second volume of Black Deeds. Opening the first two pages of the book are nine Thomas Walker photographs and his partial accounts from the Hearst press of A particularly unsavoury aspect of Volume II is its gruesome allegations of cannibalism. In fact. Volume II has been called, rather unkindly but with some justification, a Ukrainian Nationalist cookbook. An important role in the thesis of genocide is assumed by the number of famine deaths — obviously it is difficult to allege genocide unless deaths are in the multi- millions.
Here, the methodology of the famine-genocide theorists can at best be described as eclectic, unscientific; and the results, as politically manipulated guesstimates. He averages the 20 accounts which range from a low of 1,, deaths New York Herald Tribune, to a high of 10,, deaths New York World Telegram , On the list one finds, for example, Thomas Walker. Of this literary swindler who was never in Ukraine to begin with, Dalrymple states: ". Thomas Walker made a comparable survey several months later — in the late Spring of — by breaking away from a guided tour.
Walker had previously. To further exploit the Walker caper, Dalrymple states that "Walker included an extensive and chilling array of pictures. Ralph Barnes 2. Walter Duranty 3. Maurice Hindus 4. William Chamberlin 5. Stephen Duggan 6. Frederick Birchall 7.
8 Stages of Genocide (3) - Soviet holodomor
Bernard Pares 8. Eugene Lyons 9. Archbishop of Canterbury Clarence Manning Whiting Williams Naum Jasny Harry Lang Thomas Walker Nicholas Prychodko William Chamberlin Ewald Ammende Otto Schiller Serge Prokopovicz Ralph W. Stephen P. Lyons, loc. Chamberlin, op cit. Serge N. Dana G. Turning from one-time Nazi functionaries and wartime collaborators, one also finds the guesstimate of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
As a source Dalrymple cites a press clipping of a debate in the British House of Lords. The British Foreign Office replied: ". Government members shot down the discussion, partly on grounds that those who wanted to talk about famine in Ukraine were not noticeably eager to examine oppression in Germany or poverty in England. One such fund referred to by Dalrymple was the H. Skoropadsky, it will be recalled, headed a Ukrainian Nationalist puppet government set up by the German occupation authorities in Ukraine in His brief rule ended when the Germans withdrew later that year.
Skoropadsky fled into exile in Germany where he was paid a handsome pension by the Weimar and later Nazi German governments. The Hetmanites maintained groups abroad, including Canada, where they comprised a sect within the Ukrainian fascist movement. Skoropadsky was killed in during an American air raid, while attempting to flee Berlin by train. Grain deliveries to the government are proceeding at a very satisfactory rate and the price of bread has fallen sharply in the industrial towns of the Ukraine.
In view of these facts, the appeal of the Cardinal Archbishop [InnitzerJ of Vienna for assistance for Russian famine victims seems to be a political maneuver against the Soviets. By all credible accounts, the crops of and were successful. As a tribute to this fact, very few, if any famine-genocide hustlers today support claims of a famine.
However, both Ammende, and following him Dalrymple, seem to have been determined to starve Ukraine to death in as well. Within days. Datelined August 23, , Denny charged: "This statement certainly has no foundation. Your correspondent was in Kiev for several days last July about the time people were supposed to be dying there, and neither in the city, nor in the surrounding countryside was there hunger. Nowhere even the fear of it. There is food, including bread, in the local open markets. The peasants were smiling too, and generous with their foodstuffs.
In short, there is no air of trouble or of impending trouble. But perhaps someone with the techniques typical of latter-day faminologists will suggest the presence of an armed guard crouched behind the cabbage stall, who ordered everyone to smile. With that keen eye for the irrelevant that is the hallmark of American journalism, he observed that Hitler was a vegetarian and non-smoker, attributes.
And he noted that Hitler had taken upon himself "the hardest job that ever a man could undertake. This paper's brand of journalism had the reputation of being closely akin to that of Hearst. In establishing a background for his case, Dalrymple not only relies very heavily on press clippings, but also refers to questionable historical figures.
Among his celebrities not included in the list of 20 , we find the infamous Cardinal Innitzer, brought in to bolster allegations of cannibalism during the famine. British historian Joseph McCabe, quoting the Annual Register, states: Hitler assured the Cardinal that he would scrupulously respect the rights of the Church; he assured the Vatican that in return for help in Austria he would sweeten their soured relations with Germany.
After his own signature to the plebiscite he added the words "Heil Hitler.
Hearsay, gossip, political testimonies, confessions of defectors, yellow journalism, Nazi and Ukrainian rightists, all interconnect in an incestuous embrace throughout the famine-genocide campaigns. This though, is quantitatively unacceptable for the political purposes of Ukrainian right-wingers, Cold War academics and Western propaganda agencies.
Since the reports of most witnesses do not support his thesis, Dalrymple must either discredit them, impute motives, or better still, not mention them at all. The socialists, Beatrice and Sidney Webb, for instance, saw a shortage of food but no famine as such. On the basis of his experience in Ukraine, he stated that the idea of three or four million dead "has passed into legend. Any suggestion of a calamity comparable with the famine of is, in the opinion of the present writer, who travelled through Ukraine and North Caucasus in June and July , unfounded.
The allegation of lying witnesses is a frequent theme in faminology. For profit's sake, they deceived the American public and kow-towed to Moscow, while millions of Ukrainias sic were dying. A book published by the Veterans of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army goes so far as to state: In the majority of European and American press, controlled by the Jews, were silent about the famine.
The conspiracy of silence practised by Russia and her Jewish sympathizers hides much more. In the Jewish journalist Duranty was sent from the U. P Such interpretations offered by a prominent wing of the Ukrainian Nationalist movement indicate a view of history closely approximating that of the Nazis. Horsley Gantt, who claims a death figure of 15 million.
Gantt indicates that he privately got the maximal figure of fifteen million from Soviet authorities. Dalrymple revealingly informs us that, "while his article was not published until , Dr. Gantt indicates that he provided much of the information on the extent of the famine used by American correspondents during this period. Department of State. Once again, Dalrymple will not or cannot identify the staff member of the foreign legation — which might very well have been that of Nazi Germany for all the reader knows. Such unfounded hearsay based on diplomatic gossip hardly constitutes acceptable evidence.
In December he acknowledged — for the first time — that famine had existed under Stalin and Molotov. His comments, however, were confined co Jrsv I JO pm. As Winnipeg has long been a twin city with Lviv, Ukraine — much to the annoyance of the Ukrainian Nationalists — this monument can only be seen as a political provocation against peaceful relations. It is revealing that not so much as a small plaque was ever put up honoring the millions of victims of the Nazi holocaust. That this event took place in the s stands as an unfortunate tribute to the new Cold War climate and the lobbying power of right-wing Ukrainians.
The Famine Project established by the Ukrainian Research Institute of Harvard University in has been most decisive in the organization of scholarly work on the Famine. Mace, research associate at the Ukrainian Research Institute and director of the Project. American writer C.
In very large measure the area study programs developed in American universities in the years after the war were manned, directed, or stimulated by graduates of the OSS — a remarkable institution, half cops-and-robbers and half faculty meeting. It is still true today, and I hope it always will be, that there is a high measure of interpenetration between universities with area programs and information-gathering agencies of the government of the United States. Despite this assistance, The Ninth Circle appears to be improperly documented. Professor John Ryan, referring to a brief by Ukrainian Nationalists to the Winnipeg School Board which used The Ninth Circle as supporting evidence, charged: Their brief is a polemic, devoid of any documentation, and the book, The Ninth Circle, by Olexa Woropay is in the same category and lacks the essence of any scholarship.
For example, the series of accounts of personal experiences pp. Other than mere scholarly shortcomings, there is a disturbing undertone to the whole book. Woropay presents a detailed account of his activities in the Ukraine during the s, but he studiously avoids any mention of what he did during the Nazi occupation of the Ukraine.
Leaving this gap in his career as a question mark, he resumes his chronicle in , but by this time he is in Muenster, Germany. Here he is interviewing Ukrainians, who like himself, had left the Ukraine. Did he and his colleagues, in the manner that thousands of others had done, leave with the retreating Nazi troops because they had collaborated with the Nazis? In his account there is not one derogatory word about the Nazis, instead there is nothing but hatred and condemnation for the Soviets.
With this in mind, how is the reader to view the objectivity of the material that is being presented? Soon after the war, the U. To pass the time, people told stories about their own experiences. There were many peasants from Eastern Ukraine and they recalled life under Soviet rule. The pictorial proof provided by Woropay is similarly suspect. Only Thomas Walker photographs have been selected, this despite the fact that Woropay claims to have been a famine eyewitness.
Can it be that he could not tell the difference between obviously doctored fakes taken over a decade earlier, including some from Russia, and scenes from an alleged holocaust he claims to have witnessed in his own land? The text of Walker's stories is not reproduced with the photos; perhaps it is hoped that the Walker connection, like the alleged 7 to 15 million Ukrainians, will simply disappear. After all, Walker claimed to have made his travels in the spring of ; Woropay and Mace dare not attempt to stretch out the famine for another year, they are on shaky ground as it is.
Actually, one must recall, Walker never set foot in Ukraine, and entered the Russian Federation in the fall of This line reads: "When Mr. Walker entered Russia last Spring  he smuggled in a camera. Although scholars continue to debate the causes of the Famine, the number of its victims and its geographic extent, there can be no doubt of the magnitude of the tragedy in its spiritual and human dimensions. Through the use of photographs, memoirs, the testimony of survivors and the literary works of eyewitnesses we have attempted to evoke an image, however inadequate, of the nightmare world of the starving Ukraine of Three are dubious and misdated photos — including one of soldiers in Czarist-era uniforms — from the spurious Black Deeds of the Kremlin , Vol.
In the latter, it will be recalled, Laubenheimer credits Dr. As we have seen, Ditloff was not above passing off Russian famine photos as evidence of the famine in Ukraine. Three of the Ditloff photos used by Harvard were initially published in the August 18, issue of the Nazi party organ Voelkischer Beohachter. A further eight are among the many Ditloff photos used by the Hearst press credited to the fraudulent Thomas Walker.
While in themselves famine photographs do not prove the thesis of genocide, they are used to reinforce visually, charges of deliberate, planned mass starvation. Verifying their origin is an issue in its own right, particularly given the conflicting claims of credit for certain widely-used famine photos. Previously, Mace had been associated with the publication of both The Ninth Circle — which credits Walker — and the reprint of Human Life in Russia — which credits Ditloff for photographs shared in common.
In Famine in the Soviet Ukraine , for the first time both Ditloff and Walker are credited in one and the same book. One glaring contradiction, though, has been overlooked. Plate p. This same photo appears on p. Thomas W alker. Eternal Nature inexorably avenges the infringement of her commands. And the old line of Russian blood boils up and a subjected people shall rise up for a just purpose and free itself from this shame and dishonor!
The latter is a descendant of an earlier Svoboda, a newspaper also published in New Jersey. Displaying the uncritical stance of his earlier articles, Dalrymple in his Foreword refers the reader to "Communist Takeover of Ukraine" from the Select Committee on Communist Aggression of Hearsay sources gleaned from the various hearings staged during the hysterics of the McCarthy era in the United States deserve a far more cautious approach than Dalrymple possesses.
Dushnyck himself was an associate editor of Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopaedia. Dushnyck is also identified in his book as the editor of the anti-communist journal, The Ukrainian Quarterly , a fact made abundantly clear since he refers repeatedly to this journal as source material for his allegations.
His obituary recalls that "Dr. The text of 30 Years Ago is shallow cold war rhetoric. A critique by Professor John Ryan states:. For example, the book contains numerous direct quotations from Soviet leaders, or directives from the Soviet Government, but not in a single instance is this documented to a primary source; instead the footnotes refer to secondary sources, all of which appear to be anti-Soviet publications, and most refer to The Ukrainian Quarterly of which the author is the editor.
If Walter Dushnyck had intended this to be a serious scholarly article, with a B. I note that his Ph. For someone familiar with the subject matter, this material is totally bankrupt of any intellectual understanding of the events of that time. Rather than scholarly analysis, the material consists of a highly emotionally charged vitriolic polemic. Indeed it has little to do with scholarship and unquestionably it is lacking in objectivity. A naked corpse vintage decorates p.
Lastly, for p. The difference between the hypothetical estimate and the census listing is then pronounced to be "famine victims. Written by Miron Dolot an admitted alias. Execution by Hunger is undocumented and contains no photos. All of these assumptions are erroneous. All peasants have traditional techniques of birth control and are thus able to limit their reproduction to a significant degree; it is the economic benefit attendant upon having large families which is operative — a factor not applicable during famine — not ignorance of birth control.
Further, legal abortion was so widely practiced in this period that, in , the state banned it as part of the campaign to increase the population. In examining the demographics of the famine era, S. Wheatcroft states: As is well known, the First World War, Civil War and the early years of the s caused a great gap in births in these years. The age cohort born in would have been 16 in and so would have just been entering the period of major reproduction. Consequently, Lorimer and other scholars have concluded that the age structure of the population would have led to a decline in births throughout the early s and until the missing populations born into the age cohorts had passed on well into the future.
By making no allowance for a decline in the birth rate, Mace equates those who were never born with those who "died before their time. They cite the noted statistician Lorimer, who wrote concerning his own findings: "There are, of course, many other sources of possible error in all these computations. Consequently, these results should be accepted with many reservations.
Not content with leaving bad enough alone, Mace goes one step further, attempting to substantiate his famine-genocide assumptions by the results of the Soviet census Mace seemingly hasn't heard that Ukraine was occupied by the Nazis from , and was the scene of battles which took the lives of millions of combatants and civilians alike. In short, the census, as Mace himself knows, reveals demographic patterns primarily attributable to post- developments.
His attempt to detect smoke from a campfire which has been engulfed by a forest blaze is fruitless from its beginning. One might conclude that any admission of World War II as a factor was seen by Mace as detrimental to his case — he cares not about Nazi genocide, seeking only to convince readers of "communist genocide.
Of course, no rational person would accept such a thesis. The high mortality estimates featured in the famine-genocide campaign appear wildly exaggerated from yet another point of view. Six, eight, ten, fifteen million deaths, all from an ethnic population of just over 25 million Ukrainians in the Ukrainian SSR, according to the Nationalists themselves 39 — it is inconceivable that Ukraine could lose from 25 to 60 per cent of its ethnic population and still gather a successful harvest in , and then lose another 5 to 10 million people in World War II.
While it is not possible to establish an exact number of casualties, we have seen that the guesstimates of famine-genocide writers have given a new meaning to the word hyperbole. Their claims have been shown to be extreme exaggerations fabricated to strengthen their political allegations of genocide. Vladimir Institute and made under the auspices of the Ukrainian Canadian Committee and the World Congress of Free Ukrainians, Harvest of Despair employs virtually all outdated and undocumented stills commonly used in the famine-genocide campaign in its appeal to the emotion of the viewer.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, apparently unaware of its complicity in this fraud, televised Harvest of Despair to a country-wide audience in the fall of Contradicting the prestige that such an honor implies however, one New York magazine described this film festival as: "Notoriously known as a pay-through-the-nose-for-a-snatch-of-the-big-time festival, it has been denigrated over the years in this column for its policy of giving out specious official plaques to all entries regardless of quality. These include Stepan Skrypnyk, whom the American historian Alexander Dallin points out was formerly the editor of the Nazi-controlled paper Volyn under the German occupation.
According to the Ukrainian Nationalist wartime paper Nastup, Skrypnyk, as newly-ordained Bishop Mystyslav, added his name to a joint telegram to Adolph Hitler which stated: In this hour we appeal to the almighty with ardent prayers and ask that He give you strength and health to complete the great cause you have begun. We believe that the time is not far off when, in a rejuvenated Europe built on the basis of genuine Christian morals, the bells will ring out joyously telling the world about your victory. Harvest of Despair also features accounts by two former Weimar Republic diplomats to the Soviet Union, who switched over to the Nazis when Hitler seized power in Germany in In the film, Herr Henke appears to be either senile or otherwise incapacitated, and does not actually present the famine- genocide allegations attributed to him.
Instead his relatives do the talking for him. Supplementing the testimony of these former Nazis is Nazi war footage from the propaganda department of the Third Reich. In fact, Vynnitsya had been the scene of the mass execution of Jews by the Nazis and local Ukrainian police in As noted previously, Nazi propagandists published anti-Soviet material by Muggeridge in the s.
Revealingly, portions of the British newspaper which carried his famine allegations are reproduced in the film.
This fellow is trotted about the U. Indian reservations, unemployed demonstrations, or picketing the South African embassy. The ever-present Dr. As one of the top U. Yet another player in the film is Soviet defector Lev Kopylew. Vladimir Institute. In the original tape, Kopylew — in responding to the question of the famine being deliberately planned — denies that it was, although he speaks of instances of over-exuberant grain requisitioning by lower officials. Not surprisingly, this portion of the interview is censored from Harvest of Despair.
Film reviewer Leonard Klady has noted that co-producer Luhovy "admits most of his income comes from editing feature films of dubious quality. Objectivity and scientific presentation are sacrificed on the altar of Cold War psychological warfare. According to the Winnipeg Free Press , Luhovy "personally viewed more than a million feet of historic stock footage to find roughly 20 minutes feet of appropriate material for the film. Indeed, not one documented piece of evidence is presented in the film to back up the genocide thesis.
For example, footage of marching soldiers has Red Army men wearing uniforms from the days of the Russian Civil War. Footage of impoverished women cooking is also of Civil War vintage. Other scenes display peasant costumes from the Volga Russia area of the immediate post-World War I period, not Ukrainians in Footage of miners pulling coal sledges on their hands and knees is actually of Czarist-era origins.
Scenes of peasants at meetings wearing peculiar tall peaked caps date from earlier periods; further, their clothing is not consistent with Ukrainian costume. Material filched from Soviet films of the s can be identified, including sequences from Czar Hunger and Arsenal , and even from prerevolutionary newsreels. It seems that like others before them, the producers of Harvest of Despair scrounged through the archives looking for bits and pieces of old war-and-starvation shots that might be spliced into the film to great subliminal effect — bound together with narrative and interspersed partisan interviews.
As much has been admitted, as we will see. In November , Ukrainian Nationalists in alliance with right- wing school board officials, made an attempt to place their famine- genocide propaganda in the Toronto high school curriculum. Toward this end, a film showing of Harvest of Despair was arranged at the Education Centre. As the Toronto Star reported: Researcher Marco Carynnik, who says he originated the idea of the film, says his concerns about questionable photographs were ignored.
Fraud, famine, and fascism : the Ukrainian genocide myth from Hitler to Harvard
In a quite incredible admission from an academic, Orest Subtelny, a history professor at York University, justified the use of frauds. Noting that there exist very few pictures of the famine, Subtelny defended the actions of the film's producers: "You have to have visual impact. You want to show what people dying from a famine look like. Starving children are starving children. Its false use in illustrating the famine was admitted by the film's researcher Marco Carynnyk. Rig ht: the original 1 source of the cover photo: Information No.
Within two days, the Ukrainian Famine Research Committee issued frantic denials — denials fraught with contradictions, distortions and untruths. Pictures from the Famine are used when the film deals with the Famine. The Harvest of Despair section dealing with the famine is a second fraction of the film with which no one has taken issue.
Furthermore, the Committee alleges that Ammende "travelled extensively in Ukraine during the time of the famine. Perhaps the Committee should actually read Human Life in Russia. But Ammende claims a different year and photographer. Perhaps they were matched via their simultaneous appearance in various Hearst newspapers? In that event, Walker equals Walker. If so, they are not only crediting Nazi publications, but would have seen that Laubenheimer credits Ditloff for the photos. Such use of these latter pictures are clearly recognized as proper by film producers of documentaries, and do not in any way distort or affect the facts presented in the film, or the authenticity of the events shown.
Nowhere in the film are specific stills or footage identified as illustrative as opposed to documentary. The very fact that non-authentic material was used is nowhere acknowledged in the film. It is not out of place to repeat this author's call for an independent review to further examine and evaluate this film, particularly given the grants and logistical support it received from publicly-funded bodies such as the National Film Board of Canada and Multiculturalism Canada. Harvest of Despair is clearly not a documentary.
Rather it is a crude propaganda contribution to an ongoing Cold War campaign. Robert Conquest has emerged as the best attempt of the famine-genocidists for legitimacy. Conquest's career as an obsessive anti-Soviet historian has spanned two cold wars. Presently a senior research fellow at the Hoover Institution, he has long been associated with rightist emigres and anti-communist propaganda efforts as an "expert.