- Applied studies towards a sociology of language: volume 2 (class, cod….
- Basil Bernstein?
- Flashbulb Memories: New Issues and New Perspectives.
In a closed-role system, roles are set and people are viewed in terms of these roles, as well as expected to act in accordance with their role. In an open-role system, roles are not set or simple, they are fluid and changeable Littlejohn, There are two factors which contribute to the development of either an elaborated or restricted code within a system.
They are: the nature of the socialising agencies family, peer group, school, work present in a system as well as the values within the system. When the socialising agencies are well defined and structured you find a restricted code. Conversely, where the agencies are malleable, an elaborated code is found. In a society which values individuality you find elaborated codes, and in a narrower society you find restricted codes Littlejohn, Bernstein suggests a correlation between social class and the use of either elaborated or restricted code.
He argues that in the working class you are likely to find the use of the restricted code, whereas in the middle class you find the use of both the restricted and elaborated codes. However, the middle class, being more geographically, socially and culturally mobile has access to both the restricted codes and elaborated codes. Atherton, The restricted code is less formal with shorter phrases interjected into the middle or end of a thought to confirm understanding. In the elaborated code there is no padding or filler, only complete, well laid out thoughts that require no previous knowledge on the part of the listener, i.
Bibliographie de Basil Bernstein
According to Bernstein , a working class person communicates in restricted code as a result of the conditions in which they were raised and the socialisation process. The same is true for the middle class person with the exception that they were exposed to the elaborated code as well. It would be a very peculiar and cold family which did not have its own language. Though Bernstein's sociolinguistic work on 'restricted code' and 'elaborated code' is widely known it represents only his very earliest work.
This early work was the subject of considerable misunderstanding and controversy. Bernstein emphasised that 'code' was not dialect and that code theory was neither a bourgeois alibi for middle-class speech nor a denigrating deficit account of working-class language. Bernstein's "code theory" in the sociology of education has undergone considerable development since the early s and now enjoys a growing influence in both education and linguistics, especially among systemic functional linguistics.
These social positions create, as he later put it, 'different modalities of communication differentially valued by the school, and differentially effective in it, because of the school's values, modes of practice and relations with its different communities' The notion was codified first in terms of "classification" and "framing", where classification conceptualises relations of power that regulate relations between contexts or categories, and framing conceptualises relations of control within these contexts or categories These concepts have been widely used to analyse educational contexts and practices and their relations to the dispositions or coding orientation brought to education by different social groups.
These concepts raised the question of how different forms of educational knowledge are constructed. This forms the basis of his account of:. In Bernstein's conceptualisation each of these rules is associated with a specific field of activity:. Groups attempt to appropriate the device to impose their rule by the construction of particular code modalities. Thus the device or apparatus becomes the focus of challenge, resistance and conflict Bernstein Bernstein conceptualises these in terms of 'knowledge structures'.
A central framework in social realism is Legitimation Code Theory  Maton , which extends and integrates key concepts from Bernstein's code theory. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
- Teaching with the Brain in Mind (2nd Edition).
- Approach to Aesthetics: Collected Papers on Philosophical Aesthetics.
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Actualité de Basil Bernstein
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Applied Studies Towards a Sociology of Language - Basil Bernstein - Google книги
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Halliday, J. Nicholas eds. Heath, S. Heller, M. Holland, J.